UJ^.rt.1 1V.MN UKUWltt. —11 sive to man's environment. This is an optimistic inference in contrast to that drawn by Malthus. But it is not a basis for complacency. The behavioral sciences are being challenged to unravel the exceedingly complex matrix of cultural and economic underpinnings for the environmental changes that correlate consistently with fertility, and discover within them what causes desired and actual patterns of fertility to change. With this augmented stock of knowledge, one may argue from strength for a systematic re-ordering of development priorities and for the adoption of a population policy that will transfer with equity the real social costs of rapid population growth to parents who have been given the choice of modern birth control. REFERENCES 1. Myrdal, Gunnar, Asian Drama. New York: Pantheon, 1968. 2. Nerlove, M. and T. Paul Schultz, Love and Life between the Censuses: a Model of Family Decisionmaking in Puerto Rico, 1950-1960. Santa Monica, Calif.: The RAND Corporation, September 1970, RM-6322. 3. Schultz, T. Paul, "Effectiveness of Family Planning in Taiwan: a Method- ology for Program Evaluation." Santa Monica, Calif.: The RAND Corporation, November 1969. P-4069. 4. Schultz, T. Paul, Fertility Patterns and Their Determinants in the Arab Middle East. Santa Monica, Calif.: The RAND Corporation, May 1970, RM-5978-FF. 5. Becker, Gary S., "An Economic Analysis of Fertility," Demographic and Economic Change in Developed Countries, National Bureau of Economic Research. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press, 1960. pp. 209-240. 6. Johnson, Harry G., "Demand Theory Further Revised or Goods Are Goods," Economica, N.S. 25, May 1958. p. 149. 7. Lancaster, Kelvin J., "A New Approach to Consumer Theory," ./ P Econ, Vol. 74, No. 2, April 1966. pp. 132-157. 8. Easterline, Richard A., "Towards a Socioeconomic Theory of Fertility: Survey of Recent Research on Economic Factors in American Fertility," Fertility and Family Planning, a World View, S. J. Behrman et al., eds. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Univ. of Michigan Press, 1969. pp. 127-156. 9. Roberts, John M., Richard F. Strand, and Edwin Burrneister, "Preferen- tial Pattern Analysis," Explorations in Mathematical Anthropology, Paul Key, ed. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, forthcoming. 10. Becker, Gary S., "A Theory of the Allocation of Time," Econ J, Vol. 75, No. 299, September 1965. pp. 493-517. 11. Kuznets, Simon, Modern Economic Growth; Rate, Structure and Spread. New Haven, Conn.: Yale Univ. Press, 1966. 12. Ben-Porath, Yoram, "The Production of Human Capital and the Life Cycle of Earnings," J Pol Econ, Vol. 75, No. 4, Part 1, August 1967. pp. 352-365.al change. Though a consensus may not be reached quickly on particulars, there are general grounds for guarded optimism with regard to the micro dynamics of population change.